Complementary and Alternative Medicine Defining CAM is difficult, because the field is very broad and constantly changing. Three definitions could be accepted. A variety of therapeutic or preventive health care practices, such as homeopathy, naturopathy, chiropractic, and herbal medicine that do not follow generally accepted medical methods and may not have a scientific explanation for their effectiveness, and may offer treatments in areas where conventional approaches have not succeeded (e.g., chronic disorders). Is a complete system of theory and practice that have developed outside of the western medical approach, e.g. traditional oriental medicine (including practices such as acupuncture and cupping) ayurvedic medicine, homeopathy, and naturopathy. As a group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not generally considered part of conventional medicine (MD). Conventional medicine (also called Western or allopathic medicine) is medicine as practiced by holders of M.D. (medical doctor) degrees and by allied health professionals, such as physical therapists, psychologists, and registered nurses. The boundaries between CAM and conventional medicine are not absolute, and specific CAM practices may, over time, become widely accepted. Mind-Body Therapies employ a variety of non-mainstream techniques intended to facilitate the mind’s capacity to affect bodily function and symptoms, e.g. meditation, dance therapy, prayer, mental healing, relaxation therapies and, stress management. Biological-based Therapies include natural and biologically based practices, interventions, and products, e.g., herbal, special dietary, orthomolecular, and individual biological therapies, nutritional supplements. Manipulative and Body Based Therapies include methods based on manipulation and or movement of the body, e.g., chiropractic, osteopathy, massage therapy, or other body work. Energy Therapies focus on energy fields originating from within the body (biofields) or those from other sources (electromagnetic fields), e.g., Qi Gong, Reiki, Therapeutic Touch, and use of pulsed fields or magnet fields. Although the breadth and depth of CAM is beyond the scope of this chapter, a few of the more recognized and researched modalities are listed below: Acupuncture: The insertion of thin, stainless steel needles into the skin at specific locations (channels or acupoints) to affect the flow of Qi (energy) in the body. Releasing blockages of energy flow facilitates symptom relief and healing of illness. Homeopathy: Developed in Germany in the eighteenth century, homeopathic remedies are created from plant, animal, or mineral products diluted thousands-fold in water or alcohol. Based on the theory of "like cures like," the remedies are used to treat illnesses whose symptoms might be elicited by administration of the full-strength product. Massage therapy: A wide variety of physical manipulative techniques designed to promote relaxation, thereby treating conditions exacerbated by tension such as headaches, insomnia, and post-surgical trauma. Naturopathic medicine: Although similar to allopathic medicine in diagnostic techniques, naturopathic physicians avoid drugs, major surgery, and cutting-edge technology and instead rely on treatment approaches designed to strengthen the body's own healing capabilities. Prayer and spirituality: Often considered "alternative" by conventional medical standards, prayer and spirituality help patients maintain a sense of purpose, meaning, and hope in the face of pain, suffering, and uncertainty through relationship with one's own God or supreme being. Chinese traditional medicine: Utilizing methods such as herbal remedies, acupuncture, diet, meditation, and exercises such as qigong and tai chi, CTM seeks to achieve overall balance of health in preventing as well as treating illness.